Showing posts with label EDO - Tokyo. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EDO - Tokyo. Show all posts

23 Jul 2017

EDO - muken no kane bell

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. Persons and People of Edo - Personen .
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Muken no Kane 無間の鐘 "Unlimited Bell", "Soundless Bell", "the Bell of Muken"
mugen no kane 無限の鐘 - "The Bell of Hell"
mugen jigoku / muken jigoku 無間地獄 Hell of Avici.
Buddhist Hell of "Uninterrupted, Eternal Torment"


. kane 鐘 bell, temple bell - Introduction .

There are various temples in Japan who claim this bell.

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- quote -
Keisei Dôjôji - Mugen no Kane Shindôjôji 無間鐘新道成寺
"Keisei Dôjôji"
is a variation of the famous dance "Musume Dôjôji" (created in 1753) about a young girl who is rejected by a priest. He flees from her and hides under the bell at Dôjôji Temple. She pursues him and in her rage transforms into a serpent, which wraps itself around the bell. The bell is destroyed and the priest is fried to a crisp!


In "Keisei Dôjôji",
the girl did not transform herself into a serpent, but rather appeared as Katsuragi, a beautiful, high-ranking courtesan, thereby reflecting the close relationship between Kabuki and the pleasure quarters at the beginning of the 18th century when "Keisei Dôjôji" was created.
The story included a parallel tradition that the person who strikes the bell during life will be visited with unlimited wealth, but on death they will suffer unlimited torment in hell.
The courtesan describes her life and emotions in the pleasure quarters, which was like being lost in dark clouds of passion, as well as her punishment in hell, which she says is a forest of tightly packed swords through which souls are relentlessly pursued and their flesh cut to shreds. She has now come to pray to the bell that has caused her so much trouble. Hoping that her prayers will clear away her burden of sin, the spirit of the courtesan disappears.
- Courtesy of Jean Wilson (1999)
- reference source : kabuki21.com... -

. Anchin and Kiyohime 安珍・清姫 - 道成寺 Dojo-Ji .

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Hirakana Seisuiki "The Soundless Bell"


The story of the lovers 梅枝 Umegae and Genta.

Mugen no Kane 無限の鐘 The legendary Bell of Hell.
The person who strikes this bell becomes immensely rich in this world but will go directly to hell after his/her death to suffer eternally.
In Kabuki, many dances were created based on this legend and in association with the world of courtesans, always desperately helping their lover in need of money and ready to sacrifice themselves by striking the Bell of Hell. Nowadays, the only surviving mugen no kane scene is part of one act of the epic drama "Hirakana Seisuiki", commonly called "Mugen no Kane" or "Kanzaki Ageya".
- source : kabuki21.com...-


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Umegae muken no mane 梅が枝無間の真似
Parody of Umegae Striking the Bell of Limitless Hell

歌川国義 Utagawa Kuniyoshi


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. ume ga e utau 梅が枝うたう Umegae, Poetry for plum branches .
kigo for the New Year

- quote -
Umegae 梅枝
A pictorial subject based on "A Branch of Plum" Umegae, Chapter 32 of
GENJI MONOGATARI 源氏物語 (The Tale of Genji).


In the chapter,
Genji's household is preparing for the coming of age ceremony of the princess who will become the Akashi Empress (明石). On the tenth day of the Second Month Genji holds a competition to determine the incense she will use at court. He gathers scents from several people and calls on Prince Hotaru (Hotaru Hyoubunokyou 蛍兵部卿) to judge them. The scene most frequently chosen for illustration shows Genji and Prince Hotaru looking at two jars sent by Princess Asagao (朝顔), one indigo with a pine branch, one white with a plum branch from which most of the blossoms have fallen, and to which she has attached a poem. The Crown Prince also has his coming of age ceremony in this chapter.
In the Third Month the third daughter of the Minister of the Left (the third in rank of the three main ministers of state, below the Minister of the Right and the Prime Minister) is presented at court, while the Akashi Princess is presented in the Fourth Month.
At this time Tou no Chuujou 頭中将 (To no Chujo, here called the "Palace Minister", or Naidaijin 内大臣) begins to reconcile himself to the love between Yuugiri 夕霧, Genji's son, and his daughter Kumoi no kari 雲井雁.
- source : JAANUS -


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source : mfa.org/collections...Denman Waldo Ross Collection..

Ukiyo tokei Muken no kane 浮世とけいむけんのかね
A Floating World Clock as the Bell of Muken

Gakô Senkadô 西村重長 Nishimura Shigenaga (1697 - 1756)


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source : mfa.org/collections... William Sturgis Bigelow Collection...

Mitate Muken no kane zu 見立無間鐘図 Parody of Muken no Kane
川又常行 Kawamata Tsuneyuki (1677 - ?)

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- - - - - Once upon a time


- reference source : ochakaido.com/rekisi/mukashi... -

At the time of 聖武天皇 Emperor Shomu Tenno (around 730)
there lived an Immortal, 仙人, in the village of 菊川村 Kikugawa in Shizuoka.
He prayed every day to 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O and then went to the village for alms. After this, he rang the bell at the top of 粟ヶ岳 Mount Awagatake 淡ヶ嶽.
This bell could be heard all over the 遠州 Enshu region (now Shizuoka). Each ring had a special prayer wish:

一つつけば、事故や災難をまぬがれ、one - prevent accidents and disasters
二つつけば、病気にならず、- two - do not become ill
三つつけば、家内安全、- three - peace and well-being at home
四つつけば、運が開けて出世する、- four - find good luck for your business life
五つつけば、子宝に恵まれ、- five - be blessed with children
六つつけば、幸運がつづき、- six - may good luck continue
七つつけば、大金持ちになる、- seven - may you become rich

and so on for each ring.
The villagers climbed up to the temple to participate from these good prayers.
But the path to the temple was steep and narrow, and in their hurry they pushed and some fell into the ravine, some even died.
When the head priest saw all this, he decided to exclude the villagers from the prayers of the Immortal and threw the bell into the deep well.
This became known to our day as
"mugen no ido" 無間の井戸 "the endless well", "eternal well" at the top of Mount Awagatake.




Muken no Kane is 遠州七不思議 one of the seven wonders of Enshu. at 無間山観音寺 Mukenzan Kannon Temple.

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Daimugenzan 大無間山 is a mountain in Shizuoka.



- Read a long legend here:
. The perpetual life-giving wine and sennin heavenly immortals of Mt. Daimugenzan .
- - - - - excerpted from ANCIENT TALES AND FOLK-LORE OF JAPAN by Richard Gordon Smith [1918]


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at 瀬戸内海 - 塩飽本島 Setonaikai Shiwaki Honjima Island
極楽寺 Temple Gokuraku-Ji, at the 観音堂 Kannon-Do hall

The temple has the family graves of the 丸尾家 Maruo Clan.
The temple bell relates to the story of 丸尾五左衛門 Maruo Gozaemon, a former Samurai turned very rich merchant of the Edo period.


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


. abi jigoku 阿鼻地獄 / 無間地獄 Avīci, Buddhist Hell of Avici .
is called 無間地獄 "Mugen Jigoku".
... the hell of "Uninterrupted Torment" (Avici), where big dogs, pythons and monsters with many heads vomit volumes of flame to burn the sinners.
Avīci hell is also known as the "Mugen-Do, non-stop way" (無間道).


................................................................................. Nagano 長野県
佐久市 Saku city 野沢町 Nozawa

Near Nozawa town there lived a 長者 very rich man. Once he was involved in a law suit and wanted to win it. So he pledged to go to 高野山 Mount Koyasan to ring the bell Muken no Kane, if he won. He won the law suit, but after that misfortune continued, he lost more and more money and after his sudden death nobody of the family wanted to live in his mansion.


................................................................................. Niigata 新潟県
佐渡市 Sado city 相川町 Aikawa

hiru 蛭 leech
Around 1610 a person born in Tajima (Now Northern Hyogo) came to Aikawa and made a fortune in the gold mines of Sado. But he became very stingy and on the last day of the year went to the gold mine and slept there. His wife was at home preparing New Year food and wondered what to do about him. Then she remembered the lore about Muken no Kane. She pretended the grounding mortar was a bell and banged it with the pestle. From that day on the family became even richer and more gold was found in the mines.
Legend says that one can hit this bell only once in a lifetime for a positive wish. On the grave of such a person will be leeches for the next seven generations. And indeed, when her husband died, leeches showed up on his grave stone.


................................................................................. Shizuoka 静岡県
周智郡 Shuchi district 水窪町 Misakubo

hebi 蛇 serpent
Once a person went to a special riverside, オトボウ淵, to make a wish and then rung Muken no Kane. He soon became a very rich man. But after his death a serpent showed up at the riverside. If anyone wanted to approach the riverside, he had to hang some smartweed (Persicaria)around his hips for protection.


................................................................................. Wakayama 和歌山県
有田郡 Arida district 清水村 Shimizu

hiru 蛭 leech
Once a man rung the Muken no Kane and then became very rich.
But since then the soy been rice gruel the family eat on the fifth day of the New Year suddenly turned into very large leeches.

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日高郡 Hidaka district みなべ町 Minabe

To make a Muken no Kane people need a special clay and water, and then put inside it the statues of Ebisu and Daikoku when firing the pottery.
If during this process there was a huge sound, the wish was granted and the person became rich. But in reverse he had to promise to refrain from something he liked, for example not making special New Year food. One man even promised he would offer his body after this death to be eaten by the wolves.

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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Muken-no-kane
Fuga hibachi muken no kane uki-e kongen - The Elegant Brazier,
Sato nomi sao muken no kane goto
- reference : "muken no kane" kabuki -




source : traveljapanblog.com/wordpress...
muken jigoku 無間地獄 Hell of Incessant Suffering


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. Edo Culture via Ukiyo-E on Facebook .

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #mukennokane #umegae #genta #abijigoku - - - -
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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/18/2017 09:56:00 am

16 Jul 2017

EDO - Taito ward


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
- - - - - Shitaya and Iriya
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Taitoo, Taitō 台東区 Taito Ward



- quote
Taitō (台東区 Taitō-ku) is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. In English, it is known as Taito City.
- source : wikipedia

Taito is a rather new name from 1947, combining the old Shitayaku 下谷区 Shitaya Ward and
Asakusaku 浅草区 Asakusa ward. Asakusa and Ueno were rather famous places since the Edo period.

- - - - - Its sub-districts are :
Ueno 上野 
Ameyoko アメ横
Yanaka 谷中 
Asakusa 浅草 
Asakusabashi 浅草橋 

They all have their separate entries in this Edopedia.

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Shitayaku, Shitaya ku 下谷区 Shitaya Ward
One of the original 15 wards of Tokyo (1889).


Shitaya Hirokoji 下谷広小路  Utagawa Hiroshige

. Shitaya Jinja 下谷神社 .
to pray for 円満和合 a happy couple
- and 小野照崎神社 Onoterusaki jinja to pray for 学問芸能 Learning and progress in the arts

. Shitaya Sakamoto Fuji 下谷坂本富士 - Fujizuka 富士塚 mound .
(within the grounds of the Onoterusaki shrine)

. Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事 - October 9, 1698 .
from Surugadai to Shitaya 下谷, Then to 下谷池之端 Shitaya Ikenohata and on to Asakusa.
... Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 and the Shitaya Fire Haiku. Issa lived in Shitaya at that time.


- - - - - Iriya 入谷 - - - - -

- quote -
Iriya / Shitaya Area Guide
Shitaya and Iriya are neighbourhoods just north-east of Ueno Park on the other side of the railroad tracks. Taito Ward is the ward in which the bulk of Old Tokyo remainders can be found. However, it is not only Ueno and Asakusa where some gems can be discovered, the number of small temples and shrines in Iriya/Shitaya is impressive, and it retains the shitamachi feel that is common in several old Tokyo communities. When strolling through the streets, you will see many old houses in between the relics of worship. In particular check the streets around Hoshoji and
手児奈せんべい Tekona Senbei.
The good thing about Shitaya and Iriya are that there are actually no major tourist attractions and it is therefore likely one of the most authentic shitamachi areas in Tokyo. I visited this place at the start of the year, when many Japanese people were doing a 7 lucky gods pilgrimage and I could not spot many tourists. Iriya/Shitaya is just a couple of minutes away from Uguisudani Station on the Yamanote line, which gives easy access to the rest of Tokyo.
One major event in this area of Tokyo
is related to the Iriya Kishimojin (Shingen-ji Temple). Every year in July, the Morning-Glory Festival (Iriya Asagao Matsuri) is held at the temple grounds around Tanabata on 7 July. This festival at Iriya Kishimojin began in the Meiji period after a gardener planted morning glory flowers in various parts of Iriya. It grew to become a festival in which around 120.000 plants are on display, attracting 400.000 visitors over three days. It was organised for the 68th time in 2017.
You might see the name "Shitaya" pop up in the wider neighbourhood as well (such as Shitaya Shrine), as Shitaya used to be the name of a whole ward before the administrative reform of 1936. The same is true for Iriya, which spanned a larger area than is now apparent from the postal address system. ...
- 英信寺 Eishinji Temple -
This temple has a large string of prayer beads (called juzu) in front of its main shrine building that crackles as fireworks when you pull them to pray. It also enshrines Daikokuten, one of the seven lucky gods. Interesting is that if you look at the statue of Daikokuten, it resembles Benzaiten on the right side, Bishamonten on the left side, so you get 3 lucky gods at the same time. The birds they keep at this place are also nice.
- 法昌寺 Hoshoji Temple -
Hoshoji temple sports a huge colorful buddha poster and was very popular as one of the stops on the local 7 lucky gods pilgrimage as it has a small shrine on its grounds dedicated to Bishamonten.
- source : old-tokyo.info/shitaya-and-iriya -




. Iriya Kishimojin 入谷鬼子母神 Iriya Kishibojin .
and the market selling Morning-Glories, asagao ichi 朝顔市
Iriya asagao ichi 入谷朝顔市 morning glory market at Iriya

There is another famous Kishibojin Hall in Zōshigaya 雑司谷鬼子母神堂 / 雑司ヶ谷 Zoshigaya.

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Exhibition 浮世絵でめぐる台東区

浮世絵師が描く江戸のまち



- reference source : city.taito.lg.jp/index -

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- quote -
The Taito-ku Shitamachi Museum
Alan Gleason
One of central Tokyo's 23 wards, Taito-ku contains some of the most historic sites and popular tourist destinations in the entire metropolis -- the museums and zoo in Ueno Park, the Asakusa entertainment district, Sensoji temple with its big red lantern. The area's reputation as an adult amusement mecca extends several centuries back into the Edo period, when it also contained the bustling Yoshiwara red-light district, backdrop to many a Kabuki play and ukiyo-e print.

Over the past century, Taito-ku has gone through some wrenching changes -- leveled by fire twice, after the Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and in the fire-bombings of 1945, then subject to rapid, often indiscriminate postwar development like the rest of the city. Yet the district has managed to hang on to some of the old flavor of the shitamachi once inhabited by plebeian Edoites. It has also displayed sufficient civic pride to build its own museum, with funding and exhibit materials donated by local residents, in homage to the shitamachi culture. ...



Ueno-koen 2-1, Taito-ku, Tokyo
- source : dnp.co.jp/artscape/eng -

. Shitamachi 下町 and Yamanote 山の手 .


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Asakusa Kannon 浅草観音 and temple 浅草寺 Senso-Ji, Asakusadera .
Around the year 1802, a country bump came to Edo for sightseeing. After visiting the Asakusa Kannon he then was on his way back home. On the bank of the river he met a very drunk man who attacked him and killed him . . . at least the man lost his conscience and fell to the ground. When he came back to his senses, he felt for the amulet of the Asakusa Kannon, which he had placed into his breast pocket. The imprint of Kannon had disappeared from the paper. Now he knew that Kannon had taken his place and saved his life.



. More Legends about Asakusa Kannon 浅草観音 .

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akuryoo 悪霊 evil spirit

At the pond 忍ばずの池 Shinobazu no Ike lived the family of 山名勘十郎 Yamana Kanjuro.
. jishin 地震 Legends about Earthquakes .

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amagoi 雨乞い praying for rain

A disciple of 松尾芭蕉 Matsuo Basho, Shinshi, wrote a haiku to pray for rain at the Shrine
三囲稲荷社 Mimeguri Jinja
雨乞や田を見めぐりの神ならば
amagoi ya ta o mimeguri no kami naraba
And indeed, it started to rain after that.

. Takarai Kikaku 宝井其角 / Enomoto Kikaku (1661-1707) 榎本其角 .
Shinshi Ki 晋子忌 Shinshi Memorial Day

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daija 大蛇 huge serpent

The beautiful daughter of the 禁丹屋 Kintan shop had attracted the attention of the huge serpent in the pond Shinobazu no Ike and disappeared in the pond.
Later when part of the pond was filled with land and water became scarce, one beautiful lady was seen coming out of the pond, taking a ride in a wooden cart all the way to a lake in Chiba. and continued to live there.

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okame おかめの 面 face mask of O-Kame san

Once an 鳴物師 instrument maker picked up the mask of おかめの面 O-Kame san. Since he had picket it up, his family experienced a lot of misfortune. And every time before something bad happened, the mask opened her mouth and laughed. He finally broke the mask and burned it in a fire. But even after everything was reduced to ashes, when he turned around the mask was again sitting on the chest of drawers, with an open mouth, laughing loudly.



. Okame, Okamesan おかめ【お亀/阿亀】O-Kame San .

. Narimono no Kamisama 鳴り物の神様 "Deity of Instruments" - Ebisu .

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Taira no Masakado 将門

After the beheading of Masakado, his head flew to the shrine 鳥越神社 Torigoe Jinja, which is located in 東京都台東区鳥越 Taito ward, Torigoe.
. Taira no Masakado 平将門 (? - 940) .

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yuurei 幽霊 ghost

Around 1884 there lived a monk named 霊瞬 Reishun at 三縁山 Sanenzan. He frequently went to the pleasure quarters of Yoshiwara and eventually fell in love with 琴柱 Lady Kotoji. He told her about his miserable life and how all would change if he had some money to get a better job. So Kotoji gave him all her money, made him promise never to go to Yoshiwara again and committed suicide.
When he went back anyway, the ghost of Kotoji showed up and scolded him severely. Now finallyt he changed his easy-going way and later became a high-ranking priest.

. Yoshiwara 吉原 pleasure quarters of Edo .

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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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- - - To join me on facebook, click the image !

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #taitoward #taitoedo #taidotokyo - - - -
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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/10/2017 03:41:00 pm

11 Jul 2017

EDO - nengo era names


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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nengoo, nengō 年号 Nengo, "year name", era name, period name

The system of Japanese era names (年号 nengō, "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century. After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.
..... The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in AD 645, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.
The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (大化), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新) of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697–707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.
..... In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年 gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.
- quote : wikipedia -



All the Nengo have a detailed Timeline in the wikipedia:
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1596 慶長 Keichō

. Keicho no Eki 慶長の役 Fight of Keicho .
Kato Kiyomasa 加藤清 in Kumamoto

Tokugawa Ieyasu founded the Edo Bakufu in Keicho 8.
He passed on the title of Shogun to Hidetada in Keicho 10.
The 鎖国政策 Sakoku policy of closing the land for trade, except for Holland, was introduced in Keicho 14. (1609)
Banning Christianity followed in Keicho 18 (1613).
大坂冬の陣 Osaka Fuyu no Jin, the Winter Siege of Osaka and final victory for the Tokugawa government was in Keicho 19. (1615).

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1615 元和 Genna - also Genwa

Genna 02 - Death of Tokugawa Ieyasu (1616)
- - Summer Siege of Osaka
- - . Buke Shohatto 武家諸法度 laws for the Samurai .
Genna 09 - Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes Shogun

. Unpei fude 雲平筆 Unpei brush - Fujino Unpei 藤野雲平.
made since the Genna period

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1624 寛永 Kan'ei (Kanei)
Empress Meishō, 1629–1643; Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.

Kanei 01 - Spanish trade ships were banned.
Kanei 10 - Japanese were forbidden to travel outside of Japan - Sakoku policy was firmly installed.
Kanei 11 - Building of 出島 Dejima island in Nagasaki.
Kanei 12 - Buke Shohatto Samurai laws became even stricter. 参勤交代 Sankin Kotai visits to Edo were enforced.
Kanei 14 - . 島原の乱 Shimabara no Ran Rebellion .
Kanei 19 - 1642 . 寛永の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kanei .

. Kaneiji 寛永寺 Kanei-Ji - Temple in Ueno .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1644 正保 Shōhō

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1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan

Keian 06 - 1651 . Keian jiken 慶安事件 The Keian uprising .
- - - Yui Shoosetsu - Shōsetsu 由井正雪 Yui Shosetsu (1605 - 1651)
- - - Marubashi Chuuya - Chūya 丸橋忠弥 Marubashi Chuya (? - 1651)

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1652 承応 Jōō also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.

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1655 明暦 Meireki also Myōryaku or Meiryaku

Meireki 03 - . Great Fire of Meireki 明暦の大火 .
March 2–3, 1657 / 3 Meireki/1/18-19

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1658 万治 Manji
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1661 寛文 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

1673 延宝 Enpō also Enhō - Enpo
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1681 天和 Tenna also Tenwa

Tenna 02 - . Great Fire of Tenna 天和の大火 .
January 25, 1683 / 2 Tenna/12/28

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1684 貞享 Jōkyō Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1688 元禄 Genroku

Genroku 11 . Chokugaku Fire 勅額火事 .

. 元禄 Haiku Poets of the Genroku period .

- quote -
This period spanned the years from ninth month of 1688 through third month of 1704. The reigning emperor was Higashiyama Tennō (東山天皇).
..... The years of Genroku are generally considered to be the Golden Age of the Edo period. The previous hundred years of peace and seclusion in Japan had created relative economic stability. The arts and architecture flourished. There were unanticipated consequences when the shogunate debased the quality of coins as a strategy for financing the appearance of continuing Genroku affluence. This strategic miscalculation caused abrupt inflation. Then, in an effort to solve the ensuing crisis, the bakufu introduced what were called the Kyōhō Reforms. .....
- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !



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1704 宝永 Hōei      Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.

Hoei 04 - 1707 . 富士山が噴火 Great Eruption of Mount Fujisan .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1711 正徳 Shōtoku - Shotoku

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1716 享保 Kyōhō Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.

Kyoho 17 - 1732 . 享保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Kyoho .

Kyoohoo no kaikaku 享保の改革 Kyoho, Kyōhō reforms
- and Tokugawa Yoshimune,
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1736 元文 Genbun

1741 寛保 Kanpō also Kanhō

1744 延享 Enkyō Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.

1748 寛延 Kan'en

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1751 宝暦 Hōreki also Hōryaku;
Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.

Horeki 10 - . Hōreki Fire 宝暦の大火 Horeki Fire .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1764 明和 Meiwa       Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.

Meiwa 09 - . Great Fire of Meiwa 明和の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1772 安永 An'ei (Anei) Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.

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1781 天明 Tenmei

Tenmei 03 - 1783 . 浅間山が大噴火 Great eruption of Mount Asamasan . 浅間山が大噴火
- followed by
Tenmei 03 - . 天明の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenmei .

Tenmei 04 - 1784 . Tenmei inflation of currency .
and the reforms of Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1789 寛政 Kansei
1801 享和 Kyōwa

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1804 文化 Bunka      Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.

Bunka 03 - . Great Fire of Bunka 文化の大火 .
- - 江戸神田佐久間町の大火 Great fire in Sakumacho 1829

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1818 文政 Bunsei

Bunsei 12 - . Great Fire of Bunsei 文政の大火 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1830 天保 Tenpō also Tenhō

Tenpo 03 - 1832 . 天保の大飢饉 Great Famine of Tenpo .

Tenpoo no kaikaku 天保の改革 Tenpo no taikaku Reforms
and Mizuno Tadakuni.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Tenpooreki 天保暦 Tenporeki Calendar
- 天保壬寅元暦 Tenpō jin'in genreki - by Shibukawa Kagesuke
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1844 弘化 Kōka Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.

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1848 嘉永 Kaei

Kaei 06 - 1854 . Commodore Perry and the "black ships" ペリー来航 - 黒船 .

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1854 安政 Ansei
1860 万延 Man'en (Manen)
1861 文久 Bunkyū
1864 元治 Genji

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1865 慶応 Keiō

慶應義塾 Keio University
Keio University (慶應義塾大学 Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a Japanese private university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo).
- quote : wikipedia -

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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1868 明治 Meiji - Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912.

- - - Timeline in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- source reference : wikipedia

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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/06/2017 10:47:00 am

5 Jul 2017

EDO - jikan time in Edo


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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .
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jikan 時間 time in Edo - Edo no jikoku 江戸の時刻

Many words designating the time of the day, the days of a month and the months of a year are kigo for Haiku.


source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives...

The circle of time has two hours (a double-hour) for each section.

- - - - - Names of the double-hours from four to nine:
akatsuki kokonotsu 暁九つ=24時、akatsuki yatsu 暁八つ= 2時、akatsuki nanatsu 暁七つ=4時、
akemutsu 明け六つ=6時、asa itsutsu 朝五つ=8時、asa yotsu 朝四つ=10時、
hiru kokonotsu 昼九つ=12時、hiru yatsu 昼八つ=14時、
yuu nanatsu 夕七つ=16時、kuremutsu 暮れ六つ=18時、yo itsutsu 夜五つ=20時、yo yotsu 夜四つ=22時


- - - - - Names of the double-hours according to the 12 zodiac animals;
子の刻(23:00~01:00) ne (nezumi)、丑の刻(01:00~03:00) ushi、 寅の刻(03:00~05:00) tora、
卯の刻(05:00~07:00) usagi、辰の刻(07:00~09:00) tatsu、巳の刻(09:00~11:00) mi、
午の刻(11:00~13:00) uma、未の刻(13:00~15:00) hitsuji、申の刻(15:00~17:00) saru、
酉の刻(17:00~19:00) tori, 戌の刻(19:00~21:00) inu、亥の刻(21:00~23:00) inoshishi


The life of Edo was structured around the hours of daylight and work.
With no street lights, nights were dark and spooks, monsters, demons and other folk populated the streets.

At the top right, Number 2, is Ushimitsu.
At Number 4 it was time for a Daimyo Gyoretsu procession to start moving from Nihonbashi.
At Number 6, Akemutsu, the wooden doors separating each district were opened, shops were opened, public bath houses opened and the theaters and entertainment business started.
Between 6 and 8, the craftsmen went to their place of work.
At Number 14 昼八つ it was time for a food break 八つ O-yatsu (Number Eight).
Between 16 and 18, the craftsmen came back home.
At 18, Kuremutsu, the shops were closed. The evening entertainment at the pleasure quarters in Yoshiwara started.
At Number 20 it was time for children to go to sleep.
At Number 22 the wooden doors separating each district were closed.
At Number 24 the wardens at the wooden doors begun their patrols, especially looking out for fires.

One hour was named hantoki 半刻 "half a double-hour"
30 minutes were names kohantoki (こはんとき), shihantoki 四半時 "quarter of a double-hour"


- - - - - Difference between the summer and winter solstice


source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives...

At the summer solstice, the day time was longest, at the winter solstice, the day time was shortest.

. geshi 夏至 summer / tooji 冬至 winter solstice.

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. oomagatoki, Ōmagatoki 逢魔時 / 大禍時 "demon dusk" .

. ushimitsu, ushi mitsu 丑三つ時 .
ushi mitsu, the old double-hour of the ox beginning at one o'clock. mitsu signifies the third part of this time slot.
A time when the spirits of the dead and the gods are alive too.
and wara ningyoo 藁人形 straw dolls for curses


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. akemutsu 明け六つ six o'clock in the morning .
- In the Edo Period, the dawn (Akemutsu) and the dusk (Kuremutsu) were set as reference points that divided the day into day and night. Day and night were then each divided into six equal intervals. The length of each interval differed for days and nights and varied with the seasons.
(seiko co jp)

. kuremutsu 暮れ六つ; 暮六つ six o'clock in the evening . .

. The Asian Lunar Calendar - Names of the Months - and
the changing Dates of Japanese Ceremonies



. tokei 時計 history of clocks .
shaku dokei 尺時計 Pillar clock and others


- quote -
Clocks and Time in Edo Japan
A review of Clocks and Time in Edo Japan, by Yulia Frumer.

The logic of mechanical clock faces is seemingly obvious. We look at them several times a day never questioning their rationality despite the mental gymnastics required to discern what the two, sometimes three, apparently uncoordinated hands indicate. So embedded is the clock in our daily life that we use it to describe other movements (e.g. clockwise, anticlockwise) or directions (ever told someone to head in the 3 o'clock direction?) Yet, when in 1551 Oda Nobunaga, arguably Japan's then most powerful warlord, was presented with a clock by the Jesuit Louis Frois, he returned it saying that "it would be useless in his hands" (p. 53).
In this dissertation Yulia Frumer shows that, despite Nobunaga's assertions, Western time-pieces could be very useful indeed. However, their utility could only be achieved by integrating them into early modern Japanese time-keeping practices. In this fastidious deconstruction of technological determinism, Frumer shows that the adoption of Western time-keeping mechanisms led not to a transformation in Japanese time-keeping practices, but rather to a transformation of Western clocks to fit Japanese conceptions of time.
- - - - - Chapter 1 provides an explanation of the differences between Western and early modern Japanese conceptions of time. The Western system of a 24-hour day and solar year had the benefit of seasons falling on roughly the same dates in each year, but the disadvantage of months of unequal lengths that started and ended on different days of the week. In contrast, Edo-period Japanese used a system of 'variable hours'. In this convention inherited from China, the day was divided into 12 'hours' (toki or koku), each designated by one of the twelve animal signs. Six of these 'hours' fell during daylight hours and the remaining six at night. Seasonal variations in daylight meant that an 'hour' could last anywhere from about 77 to 156 'minutes' with daylight and night time 'hours' equal only during the equinoxes. Frumer also shows how time-consciousness was nurtured and regulated centrally through calendar making and locally through the ringing of bells and drums. Far from being at the mercy of climatic divination, Edo-period Japanese were bound by a shared notion of human-regulated time.
. . . . . continue reading :
- source : http://dissertationreviews....Yulia Frumer -

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. 12 Zociac animals 干支  eto, kanshi .



There are 12 zodiac animals, also representing one of the heavenly directions.
They come in the following order:

. ne 子 (nezumi 鼠) Rat (mouse)

. ushi 丑 Ox (cow, bull) .

. tora 寅 Tiger .

. u (usagi) 卯 Rabbit .

. tatsu 辰 Dragon .

. mi (hebi) 巳 Snake, Serpent .

. uma 午 Horse .

. mi (hitsuji) 未 Ram (sheep) .

. saru 申 Monkey .

. tori 酉 Rooster (chicken, cock) .

. inu 戌 Dog .

. i (inoshishi) 亥 Boar (wild boar) .


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Further topics from this source
- reference source : blog.livedoor.jp/hontino/archives -

その1、お江戸の範囲や地図など
その2、江戸の時刻
その3、江戸の通貨
その4、武士、町人の収入、物価
その5、現代より便利だった江戸時代の庶民生活の一端




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. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu poems in Edo .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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- - - - - #timeinedo #edotime #edoclocks #akemutsu #kuremutsu - - - -
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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/04/2017 03:21:00 pm

3 Jul 2017

EDO - Senju district


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
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Senju 千住 Senju district
千住 Senju, "one-thousand homes" - the local people call the place "Senji".


千住の大はし Great bridge at Senju
Utagawa Hiroshige

Since traffic passing Senju was busy since the early Edo period, Tokugawa Ieyasu allowed a large bridge to be built over the river 隅田川 Sumidagawa in 1594. It was about 200 meters more upstream than the bridge is now, and the postal station 千住宿 Senju-Shuku was on the North side of the bridge (Kita Senju). Most Daimyo stayed here on their way in and out of Edo, heading North. Providing fresh food for the many travellers was important.
Along the river where also lumber yards, storing the lumber coming downriver in rafts from Chichibu.

Kita-Senju 北千住 North-Senju
Minami-Senju  南千住 South-Senju


- quote -
Adachi-ku, Senju / Arakawa-ku, Minamisenju
Description
There are several theories for the origin of the area name, some say it is related to the 千手 senju (thousand hand) Kannon statue that was located at 勝専寺 Shosen-Ji Temple,
and others say it was related to the fact that the Chiba clan lived there (In Japanese the first character of the name 千葉 "Chiba" can be read as "sen" and "ju" can mean lived, so this could mean something like "place where the Chiba clan lived").


千住花街眺望ノ不二 - Senju kagai yori chobo no Fuji
Katsushika Hokusai

This was the first post station on the Nikko-kaido Road (Oshu-kaido Road) and one of the 4 posting stations of Edo. In 1594 the Senju-ohashi Bridge was constructed on the Arakawa-river (present day Sumida-gawa River), and the area developed as an important place for transportation and travel in conjunction with the construction of the mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu and Tokugawa Iemitsu in Nikko in 1625.
From the Kyoho Era (1716-36) onward, morning markets were held every day in the やちゃば "yacchaba" (yatchaba) within the posting stations, and were as popular as the fish markets of Nihonbashi. The area also supposed Edo's prosperity through water transport as a stopping point on the Kawagoe yofune (Kawagoe evening ships) which linked Kawagoe and Edo in a single evening and transported tourists as well as grain, fuel and fresh fish.
There was an execution ground in Kozukahara on the southern coast, which was known as the area where Sugita Genpaku and Maeno Ryotaku attended the autopsies of executed criminals in 1771.
In 1667, the Ekoin Temple was established in order to hold memorial services for those who died while in prison or who were executed.
- source : ndl.go.jp/landmarks/e...


. Kozukahara, Kozukappara keijō 小塚原刑場 Kozukappara execution grounds .
located near the southwest exit of Tokyo's Minami-Senju Station. ...
and
kubikiri Jizoo 首切り地蔵 Jiso Bosatsu to help the beheaded


There is also a theory about a beauty named 千寿 Senju ("A thousand long lives"), mistress of 足利義政 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436 - 1490), who was born in a village here, thus later giving her name to the place.



千住大橋 Senju Ohashi Bridge - - 江戸名所図会 Edo Meisho Zue

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Senjuunegi, Senjuu negi 千住葱 leek from Senju, Senjunegi 千寿葱
They are best when simply grilled over charcoal.



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Kita Senju 北千住 "North-Senju"



source : tomochika0430


Senju shuku 千住宿
first stop on the Oshu Dochu and Nikko Dochu 奥州道中 - 日光道中

. Edo shishuku 江戸四宿 The four most important SHUKUBA out of Edo .

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. tsukegi no ema 北千住 付け木の絵馬 votive tablet on a wooden frame .
made at the shop Yoshidaya 吉田家


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

行く春や鳥啼き魚の目は泪
yuku haru ya tori naki uo no me wa namida

spring is leaving ..
birds sing and the eyes of fish
are full of tears


Basho at Senju 千住 in 1689, taking final leave from his friends.
Departure 千住 江戸、旅立ち . 3月37日 (now May 16)

. Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道 .

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. Takebe Soochoo 建部巣兆 Takebe Socho (1761-1814) .
He was one of the leading haiku poets of Edo during his time, together with Suzuki Michihiko 鈴木道彦 and Natsume Seibi 夏目成美.
He was a famous resident of the Senju 千住 district.

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. Kobayashi Issa in Edo 小林一茶 .

早立は千住留りか帰る雁
haya tatsu wa Senju-domari ka kaeru kari

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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- - - - - #senju #kitasenju - - - -
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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/02/2017 10:58:00 am

2 Jul 2017

EDO - Senju district


[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Senju 千住 Senju district
千住 Senju, "one-thousand homes" - the local people call the place "Senji".


千住の大はし Great bridge at Senju
Utagawa Hiroshige

Since traffic passing Senju was busy since the early Edo period, Tokugawa Ieyasu allowed a large bridge to be built over the river 隅田川 Sumidagawa in 1594. It was about 200 meters more upstream than the bridge is now, and the postal station 千住宿 Senju-Shuku was on the North side of the bridge (Kita Senju). Most Daimyo stayed here on their way in and out of Edo, heading North. Providing fresh food for the many travellers was important.
Along the river where also lumber yards, storing the lumber coming downriver in rafts from Chichibu.

Kita-Senju 北千住 North-Senju
Minami-Senju  南千住 South-Senju


- quote -
Adachi-ku, Senju / Arakawa-ku, Minamisenju
Description
There are several theories for the origin of the area name, some say it is related to the 千手 senju (thousand hand) Kannon statue that was located at 勝専寺 Shosen-Ji Temple,
and others say it was related to the fact that the Chiba clan lived there (In Japanese the first character of the name 千葉 "Chiba" can be read as "sen" and "ju" can mean lived, so this could mean something like "place where the Chiba clan lived").


千住花街眺望ノ不二 - Senju kagai yori chobo no Fuji
Katsushika Hokusai

This was the first post station on the Nikko-kaido Road (Oshu-kaido Road) and one of the 4 posting stations of Edo. In 1594 the Senju-ohashi Bridge was constructed on the Arakawa-river (present day Sumida-gawa River), and the area developed as an important place for transportation and travel in conjunction with the construction of the mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu and Tokugawa Iemitsu in Nikko in 1625.
From the Kyoho Era (1716-36) onward, morning markets were held every day in the やちゃば "yacchaba" (yatchaba) within the posting stations, and were as popular as the fish markets of Nihonbashi. The area also supposed Edo's prosperity through water transport as a stopping point on the Kawagoe yofune (Kawagoe evening ships) which linked Kawagoe and Edo in a single evening and transported tourists as well as grain, fuel and fresh fish.
There was an execution ground in Kozukahara on the southern coast, which was known as the area where Sugita Genpaku and Maeno Ryotaku attended the autopsies of executed criminals in 1771.
In 1667, the Ekoin Temple was established in order to hold memorial services for those who died while in prison or who were executed.
- source : ndl.go.jp/landmarks/e...


. Kozukahara, Kozukappara keijō 小塚原刑場 Kozukappara execution grounds .
located near the southwest exit of Tokyo's Minami-Senju Station. ...
and
kubikiri Jizoo 首切り地蔵 Jiso Bosatsu to help the beheaded


There is also a theory about a beauty named 千寿 Senju ("A thousand long lives"), mistress of 足利義政 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436 - 1490), who was born in a village here, thus later giving her name to the place.



千住大橋 Senju Ohashi Bridge - - 江戸名所図会 Edo Meisho Zue

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Senjuunegi, Senjuu negi 千住葱 leek from Senju, Senjunegi 千寿葱
They are best when simply grilled over charcoal.



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Kita Senju 北千住 "North-Senju"



source : tomochika0430


Senju shuku 千住宿
first stop on the Oshu Dochu and Nikko Dochu 奥州道中 - 日光道中

. Edo shishuku 江戸四宿 The four most important SHUKUBA out of Edo .

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. tsukegi no ema 北千住 付け木の絵馬 votive tablet on a wooden frame .
made at the shop Yoshidaya 吉田家


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- - - - - H A I K U and S E N R Y U - - - - -

行く春や鳥啼き魚の目は泪
yuku haru ya tori naki uo no me wa namida

spring is leaving ..
birds sing and the eyes of fish
are full of tears


Basho at Senju 千住 in 1689, taking final leave from his friends.
Departure 千住 江戸、旅立ち . 3月37日 (now May 16)

. Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道 .

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. Takebe Soochoo 建部巣兆 Takebe Socho (1761-1814) .
He was one of the leading haiku poets of Edo during his time, together with Suzuki Michihiko 鈴木道彦 and Natsume Seibi 夏目成美.
He was a famous resident of the Senju 千住 district.

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. Kobayashi Issa in Edo 小林一茶 .

早立は千住留りか帰る雁
haya tatsu wa Senju-domari ka kaeru kari

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. Famous Places and Powerspots of Edo 江戸の名所 .

. Doing Business in Edo - 商売 - Introduction .

. shokunin 職人 craftsman, craftsmen, artisan, Handwerker .

. Edo bakufu 江戸幕府 The Edo Government .

. Japanese Architecture - Interior Design - The Japanese Home .

. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


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Posted By Gabi Greve to Edo - the EDOPEDIA - on 7/02/2017 10:58:00 am